Questioning Covid


  • All symptoms seen in Covid patients can be explained as neurological impairment of the autonomic nervous system.
  • Studies have shown that drugs that inhibit the sympathetic nervous system are associated with a higher mortality rate in Covid patients.
  • These drugs, all commonly prescribed to the elderly, include antipsychotics and anticholinergic drugs, benzodiaz­epines, opioids, barbiturates, proton pump inhibitors, ACE inhibitors and other drugs to lower blood pressure.
  • Acetylcholine (ACh) is a key neurotransmitter; after it is released into the synaptic space, it must be removed by acetylcholinesterase. If acetylcholinesterase is lacking, the ACh will remain in the synaptic space and the transmis­sion will not continue.
  • Microwaves and 5G affect the structure of acetylcholinesterase. When ACh is not removed for re-uptake by the neurons, the body makes more receptors for the neurotransmitters so that the sympathetic nervous system can work. Ordinarily, this can help us adjust to new electromagnetic influences, but if a person is taking the inhibitory medications mentioned above, the drugs will become toxic since the new receptors will greatly magnify their effects.
  • Covid-19 patients need a reactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, which can explain why vitamin C and vitamin D, but also zinc, selenium and hydroxychloroquine seem to be beneficial. Ivermectin seems to mimic the action of acetylcholinesterase, thereby alleviating the damaging build-up of ACh.
  • The connection of this illness with the 5G in retirement homes and hospitals must be investigated. Many patients developed Covid-19 symptoms shortly after the installation of new 5G modems in the facility. In Italy, the installation of these 5G modems began in October 2019.
  • Younger Covid patients often seem to be either cannabis or opioid users, or are suffering from chronic adrenal insuf­ficiency, often due to either intense sports activity, poor diet, high stress and/or lack of sleep.

Children like to play the Game of Why. When they start asking “why,” parents become more aware of their own educational role. Some parents answer with pride and some with confidence, while others feel they are not able to satisfy their child’s curiosity. Some children miss out because their parents don’t have the patience to answer.

People think that children who ask “why” are intelligent. I think when they receive good answers, this encourages them to play this game of asking questions over and over for the rest of their lives. I was lucky enough to have someone answering my “why” questions until I was old enough to look for the answers myself. This attitude gave me the opportunity to do research in medical science and become a physician.


As a physician I practice in Italy. When the rumors about the symptoms of this so-called pandemic were first published, I immediately realized I had already seen one patient in early January with the same syndrome; then I encoun­tered another patient who was similarly affected.

Both patients were in their eighties and both these patients were given antibiotics for the pulmonary problems, but without improvement.

When I examined them I did not hear the typical sound of bronchitis, nor did I notice signs of pneumonia. Thorax x-rays were negative for lobar pneumonia but showed “dirty lungs.” There was a diffuse crackle sound, similar to pulmonary edema (water in the lungs), even though the patients did not act as though they were drowning in water, which is the typical reaction to this condition.

Both patients had a low respiratory rate but did not gasp for air. When I consulted with an anesthesiologist friend, he confirmed that Covid patients have a decreased respiratory rate along with low oxygen saturation.

This combination points to a neurological problem, as the normal function of the respiratory center in the central nervous system (the medulla oblongata) is to raise the respiratory rate when oxygen saturation goes below a threshold.

Both patients showed signs of intoxication from neuroleptic drugs (haloperidol) and had soft swellings on arms and/or legs. The first patient had difficulties swallowing, but refused the jellied liquid that the hospitals give for this condition. His initial fever went down in two days, but his little cough persisted and he was unable to bring up any phlegm.

White blood cell counts for both patients were slightly elevated but still within the normal range. Both patients showed a deep deterioration of mobility; they could not even hold a cup. Immobility led to bed sores. Other signs were myosis (contracted pupils), sleepiness and slurred speech.

The first patient was taking beta blockers, an alphalytic for the prostate, and metformin for diabetes (which was discontinued due to the lack of food intake). The beta blockers were also discontinued to help the cough bring up phlegm and because the heart rate was low.

This patient was unable to stay awake. Food intake was extremely difficult—it took several minutes to chew one bite; however, after he was given one orange to eat he could stay awake longer and talk again. It took him several weeks to recover and months to eat on his own.

The second patient eventually passed away, but months after the initial symptoms and after the pandemic was announced.

Naturally, these strange cases made me ask “why.” Why did the first patient have these symptoms even though he had no infection? C-reactive protein (a marker for inflammation) was elevated, probably due to the thrombosis on the arm, but what was causing the problem in the lungs? The cough was triggered mainly by drinking or by difficulty in breathing.

The second patient was taking haloperidol, an alphalytic drug, beta blockers and metformin. Later, haloperidol was discontinued due to the muscle stiffness, but still he had all the same strange symptoms as the first patient.


Even though these patients suffered the same exact symptoms of the new coronavirus described everywhere, no one who took care of them got sick, even without masks and gloves. Why?

Of course, I kept asking why—why was I seeing such strange symptoms? The beginning of an answer came when I received an article, originally written for Spanish physicians, that listed the drugs that sig­nificantly increased the mortality rate of the Covid-19 patients. All the drugs outlined in the document inhibit the “fight-or-flight” sympathetic nervous system, including neuroleptics (like haloperidol), anticholinergic drugs, benzodiazepines, opioids, barbiturates, proton pump inhibitors, ACE inhibitors and other medications to lower blood pressure.

In retirement homes and hospitals, most are given antipsychotic drugs to keep them calm. However, the Covid-19 patient needs a reactivation of the sympathetic nervous system.

The common blood pressure drugs also work to counteract the ef­fects of the sympathetic nervous system. Although insulin was not on the list, we know that diabetics are more susceptible to suffer and die from Covid-19, as insulin in fact is known to cause pharmacological stress affecting the nervous system.


The somatic nervous system responds to the conscious will to vol­untarily move skeletal muscle. In contrast, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls those functions that we are not consciously aware of. In very general terms, the ANS has two components: the sympathetic nervous system for “fight or flight” activities; and the parasympathetic nervous system for “rest and digest” (Table 1).

Acetylcholine (ACh) is a key neurotransmit­ter for our entire nervous system, both central and peripheral—including the ANS. Thus when acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for clearing the ACh, is not working properly the whole body is affected. To overcome fatal consequences the body makes more receptors to reactivate the nervous system.

We have many examples of drugs and toxins that interfere with the action of cholin­esterase enzymes; they are called neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses, followed by muscle spasms and ultimately death in higher doses. Snake venom and nerve gases are examples of two potent cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to paralysis and death. Many insecticides, such as organo­phosphates, also act as cholinesterase inhibitors.

The adrenal medulla (the inner part of the adrenal gland) produces neurotransmitters for the sympathetic nervous system, such as adrenaline and noradrenaline (norepinephrine), while the adrenal cortex (the outer part of the adrenal gland) produces corticoid hormones for the parasympathetic nervous system.

When the adrenal medulla is not working, as in Covid-19, this will affect the adrenal cortex as well. Covid-19 patients may be given steroids, but these treat the cortical adrenal insufficiency, not the medulla where the problem is.


As mentioned earlier, the center for respi­ratory control is in the medulla oblongata; it is part of the autonomic nervous system and thus dependent on the neurotransmitter ACh and accompanying clearance by acetylcholinesterase. At the beginning I thought that perhaps some virus was affecting the nervous system—but why was the disease not contagious? The first patient was also cared for in a hospital, where nobody got sick. I myself did not get sick, and no one among the caregivers at his retirement home got sick. Nor did the second patient pass the illness to family members. Nobody involved in his care got sick. Masks and gloves were not in use in those early days.

One public health official in Milan had the task of following family members of Covid-19 patients during the pandemic in March and April 2020—and found that no one got infected.

Bars and restaurants on the highways have remained open, even dur­ing the stricter lockdowns of the pandemic peak, but nobody has gotten “infected,” despite customers taking off their masks to eat and drink.

I know some young people who did get sick. What they had in common was that they were all cannabis smokers—but no one else in their families got sick. Cannabis is one of the drugs listed in the Spanish document, and we know that cannabis works by blocking the sympathetic nervous system. A worker in a nearby food store got sick—he also was a cannabis smoker—but though he had contact with lots of people, no one he came in contact with got the “virus.” Why?


In the early days of Covid, I thought the illness resembled an acute attack of multiple sclerosis or of myasthenia gravis. In both conditions, the problem arises in neuromuscular transmission; both end in respira­tory failure, as do other neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and lateral amyotrophic sclerosis (ALS).

While pondering the mysteries of contagion, I watched a video by Dr. Thomas Cowan,1 in which he said that the pandemic was due to the electrification of the earth, especially the newly deployed 5G technology. I wondered how Wi-Fi could cause such a thing, so I did some research on microwaves and found that 5G was a technology developed over fifty years ago as a weapon to sap the strength of enemy soldiers and take away their power to fight. I also found that 5G affected the ANS.2

In my research, I found studies of microwave effects on animals (rats and rabbits) done almost twenty years ago.They showed how animals exposed to microwave radiation produced more receptors for the very drugs mentioned in the Spanish article, such as antipsychotics, benzo­diazepines, opioids and others. This explained why so many people in retirement homes were sick, and also explained the sudden deterioration of patients in hospitals where these drugs are broadly used to keep people calm. With more receptors, the same amount of the medication can cause overdoses; if they were not taking inhibitory drugs, the extra receptors actually would have been a helpful response to the mi­crowave radiation.

Although I reference only one article here,3 many more studies have investigated different combinations of microwave exposure—for short and long periods at low frequencies, or for short periods at high frequencies, or during the night versus the day. Researchers have documented many variations to understand the effects— none of which are good.

When I heard that in the U.S., people were dying in isolation and prevented from seeing even their own children, I decided to speak up about my findings.

Another colleague working in a retirement home said people died once their children could no longer come to feed them because, being so slow at chewing and swallowing food, no one else had the time to help them eat. Old people in the Milan area were literally starving and dying at home because they could not feed themselves.



Why did the orange help the first patient? It is because vitamin C helps to convert dopa­mine into noradrenaline, which is the primary neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system.4 The role of vitamin D for Covid patients is explained in the sidebar below.

Another question I asked myself was why hydroxychloroquine is helpful in treating this disease. After all, hydroxychloroquine is an antiprotozoa drug for treating malaria; the protozoa are between ten and twenty-five mi­crometers (μm) long, while the coronavirus is supposed to be 0.1 μm, more than one hundred times smaller.

There is no evidence that the drug can kill a virus so small, so why does it work? Inter-estingly, hydroxychloroquine has a side effect on the nervous system that turns out to be beneficial for Covid-19 patients: hydroxychloroquine stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, and this is exactly what the Covid-19 patient needs—a reactivation of the sympathetic nervous system.5,6

An interesting finding about hydroxychlo­roquine is that it protects cancer patients from radiation therapy.7 Cancer patients receive ion­izing radiation whereas 5G microwave radiation is non-ionizing, so further studies are needed to ascertain the therapeutic role of hydroxychloroquine for non-ionizing microwave radiation.

Zinc also seems to help, which raises an­other “why.” The answer is that zinc is very im­portant and necessary for the nervous system.8 Selenium, too, has a primary role in nervous system function,9 and in my opinion, it should be part of Covid-19 treatment as well.

The loss of olfactory function has been widely studied as a preclinical symptom in neurological degenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease,10 Parkinson’s disease11 and myasthenia gravis.12 The cholinergic pathway—and acetylcholinesterase activity—are common denominators across all of the studies highlight­ing loss of smell as an early and prognostic fac­tor.13-15 The sudden loss of smell is recognized as an early symptom in Covid-19.16 Studies of ivermectin show it to be structurally related to many neurotransmitters, among them ACh. In a 2017 study published in Scientific Reports,17 ivermectin demonstrated a role in removing ACh from the synaptic space, mimicking the action of acetylcholinesterase (the enzyme dam­aged in patients with the Covid syndrome).

Last but not least, I would like to mention that the nervous system is certainly awakened by sensory stimuli; in the past, to restore con­sciousness, people used smelling salts. I rec­ommend keeping some essential oils on hand, which can serve the same purpose.


Why are young people also getting sick? In my experience, there are two different factors that endanger young patients: use of cannabis or opioids and adrenal exhaustion (so-called chronic adrenal insufficiency). The latter condi­tion is common in young people who practice lots of sports, who experience lack of sleep, or in those who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet. All these factors can lead to adrenal insufficiency, affecting the autonomic nervous system.

This explains why steroids may work, at least temporarily; steroids are synthetic hor­mones that replace hormones produced by the adrenal glands. We have seen many female patients in their forties who, after recovering from Covid-19, entered early menopause due to (cortical) hormone insufficiency.

Although many of the health care providers using hydroxychloroquine for Covid-19 patients are also giving patients antibiotics, there is no logical reason to do so. This disease does not have a bacteriological or viral origin, and the outcome is just as good or better without anti­biotics. In fact, two studies confirm that giving antibiotics like azithromycin does not change the outcome for Covid-19 patients.18,19 Withholding antibiotics is the wiser course of action unless the patient suffers from aspiration pneumonia, caused by a solid or liquid in the lung, leaving the patient unable to swallow.

Another interesting question has to do with the influence of temperature on the disease. In the beginning, the experts claimed that the virus could not survive temperatures above 73 degrees F (23 degrees C); then they changed it to 80 de­grees F (27 degrees C), subsequently lowering it to 64 degrees F (18 degrees C). In any case, one has to ask another “why” question: why were there so many cases in the summertime in Florida and Texas, where temperatures are much higher than 80 degrees F? The explanation is that going from a hot environment outside to an air-conditioned environment inside—with a temperature difference that can be more than 20 degrees F—represents a constant shock to the adrenal glands, which makes people more vulnerable.20,21 Many studies show that it is very stressful for the adrenal glands to adjust to such temperature differences. This constitutes more evidence that Covid-19 is a neurological disease. This would explain why there was no fatality among children in prepuberal age—the time when adrenal glands are not so essential for their physiological functions.

But the principal question we should be asking is why 5G causes this ACh problem. Studies on mobile phones and Wi-Fi suggest an answer, showing how microwaves change cholinesterase activity, affecting its capacity to remove ACh from the synaptic space.22,23 As mentioned above, when ACh is not removed, nervous transmission does not go forward, and when cholinesterase activity is suppressed, the ACh re-uptake by the neurons cannot happen. This lack of neurological function then causes our bod­ies to create more receptors for all the neurotransmitters needed to keep us alive. This is, in fact, one way that we adjust to new electromagnetic influences—from radio waves to 5G—but if a person is taking medica­tions that are eventually blocking these extra receptors, the drugs will become toxic, as all the new receptors will greatly increase their effect.

The symptoms seen in Covid-19 patients will vary depending on the different combinations of drugs that each person is taking. A person tak­ing beta blockers might have problems with low heart rate and coughing, because beta blockers block the epithelium of the respiratory system; this makes it difficult to get rid of the extra mucous, which will remain stuck in the lungs.

The inability to breathe deeply due to the inhibition of the respiratory center (despite decreasing oxygen saturation), contributes to the accumu­lation of water in the lungs resulting in the typical crackling sound.

A typical picture of the coronavirus shows a cell membrane with spikes. Interestingly, those spikes have the exact same shape as the cell membrane receptors for ACh, and a 2D picture of ACh receptors on a cell membrane looks just like a 2D picture of the coronavirus receptors.24 I am not saying the spikes are just ACh receptors but they are cer­tainly some kind of neurotransmitter receptor.

In his video, Dr. Cowan explained that viruses are actually exosomes. When an ex­pert in RNA viruses and exosomes from Johns Hopkins tried to explain what the coronavirus is supposed to be, he admitted that there is no difference between the coronavirus and an exosome—except that the coronavirus has an “evil” purpose while the exosome does not.25 Now, since this “evil” virus has not been seen holding a pitchfork in his hand, we do not know whether it is an “evil” virus causing the illness, or 5G microwaves.


It is very sad to see how many old people have passed away and how many continue to die. It seems we are unable to stop the destruction. When our wise bodies produce extra receptors to recover from a microwave attack, we should consider avoiding the medications that prevent this healing process. Most people can adjust to 5G, but only if they stop taking inhibitory drugs.

Actually during the past year, I had to reduce or suspend beta blockers for many pa­tients since their heart rates were too low for the regular doses.

Unfortunately, people who are unable to make the extra receptors in response to mi­crowave radiation seem to die very quickly. I witnessed patients with all the Covid-19 symptoms but repeatedly negative to Covid-19 tests, pass away in a couple of days after the onset of the illness.

It is important to notice that this neurologi­cal problem can also appear without respiratory or cold symptoms, in which case it resembles an Addisonian crisis. An Addisonian (or acute adrenal) crisis occurs when the body is unable to produce a sufficient amount of noradrenaline and steroids in response to stress. Symptoms include extreme weakness, fatigue and danger­ously low blood pressure.26

I myself experienced an Addisonian crisis in November 2019, and I literally thought I was going to die. It was the first time in my career I had to ask a colleague to do my shift, because I could not move. I was awake but I felt like my body was sleeping, and when I wanted to move my limbs, it involved the same effort as when someone tries to move an arm or a leg while dream­ing in his sleep. As with Covid-19, it was not contagious, of course.

Covid-19 patients, even those with mild symptoms, show decreased sodium and increased potassium levels, confirming the adrenal insuffi­ciency. In the worst cases, the potassium is also low, which in old people is often due to the use of laxatives or diuretics.

The connection of this illness with the 5G in retirement homes and hospitals must be investigated. The first patient I described came from a retirement home where they had replaced the telephone and Wi-Fi system with new 5G modems one or two days before all the residents got sick. Likewise, in another retirement home, they installed new Wi-Fi modems just a few days before the epidemic burst on the scene. A 5G modem was also in the house of the second patient I described.

During the lockdowns, a lot of people got sick while staying at home because they changed their modems to get better Internet. At the same time, a huge number of new 5G transmitters were installed all over the country, including in very small villages. I recently visited a village where 5G had not yet arrived, and no one had contracted Covid-19. In Israel, many religious people fell sick, probably because they decided to have powerful Internet installed at home during the beginning of the first lockdown so they could study and be connected.

In northern Italy, one doctor working in a hospital emergency room during the peak of the illness was arrested for murdering Covid patients by using drugs that inhibited the nervous system; due to these drugs, they passed away.27

Many doctors all over the world have noticed that the condition of Covid-19 patients worsens upon intubation, leading eventually to their demise. To intubate a patient (that is, to put them on a respirator), we use drugs that block the neuromuscular transmission—the exact cause of Covid-19 lethality.

Looking back at the history of “viral” infectious diseases, we may remember another plague that affected the nervous system: poliomyelitis. In that case, the problem involved paralysis of limbs, and death was due to paralysis of the respiratory muscles. To help patients breathe, people used artificial lungs that mechanically replaced the respiratory muscle contraction. I think that these artificial lungs could have been of more help for Covid-19 patients and certainly would not have caused the many deaths that resulted from the inhibitory drugs used for intubation.

Another question: When the nervous system is affected by Covid-19, what happens with the immune system? The simple answer is that the white blood cells are our nervous system—our “brain”—in our blood. The neuro-transmitters are in our blood circulation, and they affect our immune system; this explains how our emotions can change our immunity, for better or worse.


I believe the solution to this enigma was given to me by the son of a patient who survived Covid, who urged me to speak up. “Children must see their elderly parents,” he said. “They have to go and put food in their mouths in the most positive and loving way.” This is the ex­planation of every successful therapy—children must go to their parents to help them recover.

In northern Italy, this did not happen; old people were left in retirement homes and from there taken to hospitals or left alone at home. As a colleague mentioned, “Once children could no longer enter the retirement homes to feed their parents, the parents all died.” We see people frightened to see their parents, or parents frightened to see their grandchildren, but once they are together and taking care of each other, the fear disappears. Certainly, good advice from a conscientious physician can help, but without the care of their children, old people hardly ever make it.

I cannot stress enough that this disease is not contagious. People should overcome fear and help each other. We should not think selfishly— because once you help your elderly parent, your children will learn to do the same with you when you need it. This is just a basic part of being human! I feel the only cure to this pandemic is to rediscover our shared humanity.



Interestingly, a recent article suggests that the symptoms diagnosed as Covid-19 are actually manifestations of vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency.28 Although the author clearly sees how the problems in Covid patients are in the autonomic nervous system—just as I describe in this article—he attributes them solely to a B1 deficiency.

I believe microwaves are the problem and that vitamin B1 deficiency worsens microwave effects on the autonomic nervous system. That said, vitamin B1 supplementation probably would assist nervous system functioning29 and certainly could be helpful for diabetic patients taking metformin or patients taking diuretics, as both of these drugs deplete vitamin B1.


Why do people exposed to sunlight recover before other patients? The answer is that vitamin D is a neuroprotector and modulator of the autonomic nervous system in many ways, some of which (summarized below) were outlined in an article published in US Neurology in April 2018.30

NEURONAL EXCITABILITY: Loss of neuronal excitability, which occurs with aging, is a proposed cause of cognitive decline. Studies (in rats) show that vitamin D3 supplementation increases neuronal excitability in the hippocampus.

SYNAPTIC FUNCTIONING: Vitamin D upregulates genes essential for synaptic plasticity as well as those needed for normal synaptic functioning—including receptors for major neurotransmitters such as dopamine, glutamate and serotonin.

DOPAMINE SYNTHESIS: In Parkinson’s disease, the observed dysfunction of the substantia nigra (the midbrain region responsible for producing dopamine, the so-called “feel-good” hormone) has been attributed to a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine synthesis. TH is the enzyme that converts the amino acid tyrosine to dopamine. Studies show that vitamin D supplementation increases TH expression and dopamine production in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Vitamin D also upregulates N-cadherin, a protein that plays a mediating role in the creation and development of dopamine neurons as well as in synaptic plasticity and memory.

ACETYLCHOLINE: Treatment with vitamin D3 increases the activity of choline acetyltransferase and increases ACh levels in brain areas of relevance to Alzheimer’s disease. A major risk factor for cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s is type 2 diabetes (T2D), which is thought to reduce ACh levels. In animal (rat) models, vitamin D supplementation has produced improvements in T2D-related cognitive decline, with the improvements mediated by increased choline acetyltransferase activity and decreased activity of acetylcholinesterase.

GLUTATHIONE: Glutathione acts as both a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. Through its action on glutamate receptors, glutathione confers protection against glutamate excitotoxicity. Vitamin D supplementation increases gluta­thione levels and has been demonstrated to prevent the glutamate toxicity implicated in cognitive decline.

SEROTONIN: Vitamin D responsive elements (VDREs) are found in tryptophan hydroxylase promoter regions. Trypto­phan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) is an enzyme involved in brain serotonin biosynthesis. Research indicates that vitamin D increases expression of TPH2 messenger RNA (mRNA) in the brain, suggesting vitamin D control over brain serotonin levels. In fact, studies point to a role for vitamin D treatment in preventing both dopamine and serotonin depletion in certain areas of the brain.


The overexpression of receptors to overcome microwave toxicity is something we are all experiencing at some level. If the Covid-19 test is actually measuring the density of these receptors, eventually all exposed to 5G will be found positive. However, the old, the fragile and those taking inhibitory drugs are more likely to get sick.

I believe vitamin C and vitamin D—in natural foods such as fresh citrus (vitamin C) and in sunlight and/or cod liver oil (vitamin D)—together are a great help in preventing Covid-19 symptoms, along with a healthy, relaxed lifestyle and some micronutrients such as selenium and zinc. All of the patients I have seen (and those I have treated on the phone) have responded successfully to the therapies I propose below, although these were generally healthy people. For individuals taking many drugs, the solution is more complicated. However, suspending inhibitory drugs as much as possible must be considered.

  • Discontinue inhibitory drugs until there is no more sign of toxicity or overdose.
  • Avoid EMF exposure.
  • Consume a source of natural vitamin C.
  • Take cod liver oil for vitamin D and supporting vitamin A.
  • Get daily sunshine, if possible.
  • Eat foods rich in zinc and selenium (or take supplements).
  • Increase vitamin B1 intake if diabetic or taking diuretics.

The effects of microwaves depend on the duration of exposure and the frequency amplitude—both being factors mostly beyond our ability to control or even check. What we can do is minimize our exposure, especially in the home. Ultimately, I hope the world will find a different way to deal with 5G microwaves. Lockdowns and masks are not useful and actually do more harm than good.


Some clinicians are describing L-lysine (the usable form of the essential amino acid lysine) as another successful Covid-19 treatment.31 Food sources of lysine include meat, seafood, eggs and dairy products. Among other benefits, L-lysine is known for its anti-anxiety effects through its normalization of adrenal hormones and enhancement of “adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline levels.”32,33

Research indicates that L-lysine also modulates nitric oxide (NO) production. Impaired NO production can lead to decreased adrenal gland production of the neurotransmitters so critical to the body’s stress response.34 EMF expert and former biochemistry professor Martin Pall theorizes that NO is implicated in “pathophysiological responses to EMF exposure” through a process that results in oxidative stress and free radical production.35 For these reasons, L-lysine has attracted the attention of individuals suffering from overt electrosensitivity; L-lysine’s ability to indirectly limit NO production “should in theory help prevent or inhibit the vicious cycle initially stimulated by EMFs.”36 All of these factors can explain L-lysine’s successes in treating Covid-19.


Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter at various synapses, nerves and at the motor end plate of verte­brate muscles. When a nerve impulse arrives at the nerve ending, ACh stored in vesicles is released and binds to a postsynaptic receptor, causing depolarization. Since ACh is degraded by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, it has a brief duration of action. Inhibitors of the enzyme, however, prolong the lifetime of ACh. Nerve gases and organophosphates lead to accumulation of ACh and associated toxicity.

In the synaptic cleft, the released ACh will associate with post- and prejunctional receptors and is also subject to rapid hydrolysis by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase into choline and acetate. Over 50 percent of the choline formed will be taken up again by the nerve terminal and reused for neurotransmitter synthesis.

In the autonomic nervous system ACh is the neurotransmitter of all preganglionic and postganglionic para­sympathetic neurons. ACh is also present at the level of many brain synapses, in particular in the basal nucleus.

Adrenaline, or epinephrine, has been considered for years the main neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system, although it was known that the effects of its administration were different from those obtained by direct stimulation of the sympathetic. As well as in the medullary part of the adrenal gland, adrenaline is also released at the synapse level of the central nervous system, where it plays the role of a neurotransmitter.

Adrenaline is involved in the “fight or flight” reaction. In general, its effects are: gastrointestinal relaxation; dilation of the bronchi; increased heart rate and systolic volume (and consequently cardiac output); deviation of blood flow to the muscles, liver, myocardium and brain; and increased glycemia.

Noradrenaline, or norepinephrine, is a neurotransmitter released by chromaffin cells as a hormone in the blood, it is also a neurotransmitter in the nervous system where it is released by noradrenergic neurons during syn­aptic transmission. As a stress hormone, it involves parts of the brain where attention and reaction controls reside. Together with epinephrine, it causes the “fight or flight” response, activating the sympathetic nervous system.

To sum up, the parasympathetic transmission works only on ACh and is called cholinergic, while the sympathetic transmission sees ACh only in the preganglionic synaptic space, which then stimulates the release of noradrenaline and adrenaline neurotransmitters at the end of the reflex pathway, giving it the name adrenergic. Thus if the ACh is not removed by the acetylcholinesterase in the preganglionic cleft, the transmission cannot continue and the adrenergic system does not work.

In cases of emergency (for example, life-threatening circumstances such as hemorrhage or thermal shock), noradrenaline and adrenaline are also made by the adrenal medulla also without the brain stimuli. This emergency stress, if prolonged, may cause exhaustion of the adrenal glands.

ACh is also present in nonneuronal cells. In recent years it has become clear that in the airways, the majority of cells express choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and contain ACh, including epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, mast cells and migrated immune cells such as alveolar macrophages, granulocytes and lymphocytes. However, the regulatory role of this nonneuronal ACh in inflammatory airway diseases has yet to be established. I think this can explain the respiratory problem in Covid patients. Furthermore acetylcholinesterase is also present on the membrane of red blood cells where the cell shape is regulated.37

The changes in the red blood cell membrane are connected to thrombotic events and the role of zinc and vitamin E have shown a better outcome.38 Thrombotic events related to organophosphate toxicity (meaning cho­linesterase damage) have been widely reported.39

About the author: Ilana Nurpi, MD, is a physician practicing in Italy.


  1. The Binary Dissident. “Dr Thomas Cowan: Corona Virus 5G Theory.” Posted Apr. 5 2020.
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Be sure to check out the rest of the articles on this blog under the category of Covid-19:

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